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高考英语核心词精讲精练(十六)

时间:2023年09月20日 阅读量 : 234

341. injure /'ɪndʒə/ v. 使受伤,伤害


【拓展】


(1)injury n.伤害,伤口


do sb./oneself an injury


= do an injury to sb./oneself      使某人/自己受伤害


(2)injured adj.    受伤的


get injured   受伤的


the injured 伤员


【例句】①But now, because my left foot was injured in the football game, I cannot go with you as planned.但现在,由于我的左脚在足球比赛中受伤了,我不能像计划的那样和你一起去。


②There's no denying that the attack has done a severe injury to his reputation.不可否认,这次攻击对他的名誉造成了严重的损害。


③When we were on the spot of the accident, we were told that the injured had been sent to the nearest hospital.当我们赶到事故现场时,我们被告知伤员已经被送往最近的医院。


【串记】Two players are out of the team because of injury. Luckily, Tom isn't injured. 两名队员因伤退出了比赛。幸运的是,汤姆没受伤。


【辨析】injure, harm, wound, hurt


injure 多指在意外事故中受到“伤害”,也可指精神上受到伤害


harm 多用于口语,指对肉体或精神上造成伤害,包括健康、心情、权利、事业等。名词为harm (不可数)。常用短语:do sb.harm =do harm to sb. “对某人造成伤害”


wound“伤害”,多指在战斗中用刀、枪等“伤害”,程度较重


hurt 可指对肉体或心灵造成“伤害”,强调伤痛感


342. insist /ɪn'sɪst/ vi. 坚持;坚决认为/要求


【拓展】


insist on/upon (doing) sth. 坚持要求(做)某事


insist (that) … (should) do sth. 坚持要求(做)某事


insist (that) 从句坚持说/认为


【例句】①The doctor insisted that she was seriously ill and that she (should) be operated on immediately. 医生坚持说她病得很重,应该立即动手术。


②I insist on taking proper food for the expedition.


我坚决要求为这次探险携带合适的食物。


【串记】The team insisted upon being given every detail of the case. However, the guide insisted (that)he was innocent. 这个团队坚持要求说明事情的整个来龙去脉,但是,这个导游坚持说他是无辜的。


易错点拨


(1)insist表示“坚持说,坚持认为”时,其后的宾语从句用陈述语气;表示“坚决主张,坚持要求”时,其后的宾语从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用“(should) do”。


(2)insist后面既不接不定式也不接动名词,遇此情况要用insist on/upon。insist后也不接带不定式的复合结构。


343. inspire /ɪn'spaɪə/ vt. 鼓舞,激励;启发,给…灵感


【拓展】


(1)inspire sb. to do sth.激励某人做某事


inspire sb. with sth. = inspire sth. in sb.激起某人的……


(2)inspired adj. 激动人心的;卓越的


inspiring adj.       鼓舞人心的;给人启发的


inspiration n.       灵感,启发;鼓舞


【例句】①His encouraging remarks inspired confidence in me.=His encouraging remarks inspired me with confidence.他鼓励的话语激起了我的信心。


②His speech was inspiring and touched everyone's heart, which inspired all the people present to work  still harder later.他的演讲令人鼓舞,打动人心,鼓舞了在场的每个人今后更努力地工作。


【串记】He draws inspiration from the inspiring work. 他从这件鼓舞人心的作品中得到灵感。


344. instruct /ɪn'strʌkt/ vt.指示,命令;教授,指导


【拓展】


instruct sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事


instruct sb. in sth.教授某人某方面的知识


(1)instructionn. 指/命令;指示;教导 


operation instructions使用说明书give(receive)instruction in教授……(接受……指导)


instructive a.有益的;教育性的


instructor n.指导书;教员;指导者


【例句】①But with my English teacher's patient instruction and help, I kept on learning, memorizing, reciting, practising, and correcting.但是在我的英语老师耐心的指导和帮助下,我不断地学习、记忆、背诵、练习、改正。


②The letter instructed him to report to the general manager at once.那封信指示他立即向总经理报告。


③It is the most instructivelecture that I have attended since I came to this school.这是自从我来到这所学校,我参加过的最有教育意义的讲座。


【点津】instruct表示“命令”时,后面的宾语从句要用虚拟语气,即“should+动词原形”,should可以省略。


【串记】When destructive floods brought destruction to the constructions of the area, follow the instructions provided by the instructivebook.  当毁灭性的洪水给这个地区的建筑物带来了破坏时,按照这本有教育意义的书的说明去做。


345. intend /ɪn'tend/ vt. 想要,打算


【拓展】


(1)intend doing/to do sth打算做某事


intend sb. to do sth. 打算让某人做某事


本来打算做……(事实上没做成)


intend that ... (should) do sth.打算……;主张……


be intended for ... 为……打算(或设计)的


(2)intention n. 意图,目的,打算


with an/the intention of 抱有……的目的;打算……


【例句】①He has made up his mind to intend his son to manage the company. 他决心让他的儿子管理公司。


②We had intended to arrive at our destination at 9 o'clock, but we didn't because of the traffic jam.我们本来打算在9点钟到达目的地,但是由于交通堵塞我们晚点了。


③The local government has already collected three million dollars, intended for the environment improvement.当地政府已经筹集了300万美元,打算用于改善环境。


【串记】Her intention was to write an inspiring work, so she intended to collect material. 她的意图是写一部鼓舞人心的作品,所以她打算收集资料。


346. interest /'ɪnt(ə)rɪst/ n. 兴趣;利息;(复)利益;vt. 使…感兴趣


【拓展】


(1) develop one's interest in 培养某人某方面的兴趣


have/show/take (an) interest in对……感兴趣


have no(1ittle)interest for对……没有(什么)吸引力


have interest with对……产生影响


in the interest of 为/符合……的利益(作表语)


lose interest in 对……失去兴趣


with interest 有兴趣地;津津有味地


places of interest 名胜


(2)interesting adj. 引起兴趣的,有趣的


interested adj. 感兴趣的


be interested in (doing) sth.对(做……事)感兴趣


be interested to do sth.有兴趣(做……事)


【例句】①The purpose of this new programme is to develop our interest in English learning and practical abilities in listening and speaking.这新课程的目的是培养我们在英语学习和听说实践能力方面的兴趣。


②Since you are interested in traditional Chinese cultures, I think this festival is well worth experiencing.既然你对中国的传统文化感兴趣,我认为这个节日非常值得体验。


③The government should avoid doing anything that is not in the interest of the public. 政府应该避免做不符合公众利益的任何事情。


【串记】This is really an interesting story, I amvery interested in it. What interestsme most is its conclu-


sion. 这真是一个有趣的故事,我对它很感兴趣。我最感兴趣的是它的结局。


347. intelligent /ɪn'telɪdʒ(ə)nt/ a.聪明的,有才智的


【拓展】


intelligence n. 智力;情报工作


intellectual a. 智力的;聪明的;理智的;n.知识分子


【例句】Susan's a very bright and intelligent woman who knows her own mind. 苏珊是一个非常聪明伶俐而且清楚自己想法的女人。


【串记】She's a woman of exceptionalintelligence who can always solve mysteries of intellectual novel in advance. 她是个格外聪明的女人,她总是能提前解开推理小说的谜题。


【辨析】


bright侧重指小孩或年轻人思路敏捷;


clever更强调头脑灵活,也可指有些小聪明;


wise指因阅历丰富而明智且智慧的;


brilliant指才华横溢,聪颖的;


gifted 主要指儿童天赋高的,天资聪慧的;


intelligent指智慧超群的,侧重智力的外在表现;


smart着重指反应敏捷,思路活跃。


348. interview /'ɪntəvjuː/ n. & v. 采访;面试;会见


【拓展】


give an interview(to sb.) 接见(某人),接受(某人)采访


have(hold) an interview with sb.与某人面谈,采访某人


a job interview求职面试


at interview 在…会见时


in the interview 在采访中


interview sb about sth 就某事采访某人


interview by 通过…进行采访


interviewee n. 被接见者;被访问者 


interviewer n. 接见者;访问者


【例句】The interview was published in all the papers. 各家报纸都刊载了这次访谈。


【串记】She indeed attended a job interview. They gave her an interview, but decided not to offer her the job. 他的确参加了工作面试。他们对她进行了面试,但决定不把这份工作给她。


349. introduce /ɪntrə'djuːs/ vt. 介绍;引进,传入;推行,采用(同bring in)

【拓展】

introduce into 引进; 插入


introduce to 把…介绍给; 使…了解


introduction n. 介绍;引进;采用


【例句】①Modern scientific inventions have introduced many new words into the language.现代的科学发明给语言引进了许多新词。


②He introduced me to a Greek girl at the party. 他在聚会上介绍我认识了一位希腊姑娘。


【串记】His self-introduction is very interesting, so I'd like to introduce him to my friends. 他的自我介绍很有趣,因此我想把他介绍给我的朋友。


350. invent /ɪn'vent/ vt. 发明,创造;编造(同make up)

【拓展】

inventor n. 发明家/者


invention n. 发明;发明物


【例句】Who invented the steam engine? 谁发明了蒸汽机?


【串记】The intelligent interviewer is a great inventor, whose inventions are influential. 聪明的面试官是一个伟大的发明家,他的发明很有影响力。


【辨析】invent/discover


invent 发明,创造(本没有的东西);


discover 发现(本来存在的东西)。


351. invite /ɪn'vaɪt/ vt. 邀请,招待

【拓展】

invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事


invitation n.邀请;引诱;请帖;邀请函


inviting a. 诱人的;有魅力的


【例句】Have you been invited to their party? 你接到参加他们的聚会的邀请了吗?


【串记】Although they invited me to this inviting party, I declined the invitation. 虽然他们邀请我参加这个诱人的聚会,但我婉拒了。


352. involve /ɪn'vɒlv/ v. 包含,含有;使卷入/参于;牵涉

【拓展】

(1)involve sb.in (doing) sth使某人参与(做)某事;使某人牵扯到某事中


involve doing sth. 包括做某事;需要做某事


involve sb with sb与(某人)有密切关系


(2)involved adj. 复杂的;有牵连的,有关的


get/be involved in 被卷入……之中;热衷于,专心于


be/get involved with sb./sth.与某人混在一起/和某事有密切联系


involvement n. 参与;牵连;包含

【例句】①Don't involve yourself with those people.不要和那些人混在一起。

②They were so deeply involved in the matter that they found it hard to pull out. 他们在那个问题上陷得太深,难以自拔。

【点津】involved adj.作前置定语时,意为“复杂的”;作后置定语时,意为“涉及的”。例如:an involved sentence“一个复杂的句子”;the people involved“所涉及的人”。

【串记】Parents’involvement in children’s education  will have a positive influence on their growth. So some experts insist parents should be involved inthe education.父母参与孩子的教育对他们的成长有积极的影响。因此,一些专家坚持认为父母应该参与教育。


353. join /dʒɒɪn/ v. 参加,加入;连接;会合

【拓展】

join in 加入;参加


join(sb.)in sth.和(某人)在一起;陪(某人)干某事,参加某事


join in(with)(和……)一起活动


join hands with 握手;同…联合


【例句】①He joined the army in 1940 and joined the Party next year.他1940年参军,次年入党。

②Sarah never joins in with us.萨拉从不和我们一起活动。


③Where does this stream join the Yellow River? 这河流在何处与黄河会合?

【串记】The intellectual joined hands with the head and decided tojoin the organization. 那位知识分子和领导人握手,决定加入这个组织。

【辨析】join, combine, connect, unite,link,attach

这组词都有“连接”的意思。它们之间的区别在于:

join“接合,连接”是强调原来是独立分离的两个(或两个以上)事物结合在一起,通常指直接地连接;unite“联合,团结”是强调很紧密的结合成一个新的统一整体,不能拆开;combine“结合,化合”,着重指原来性质或成分不同的事物结(化)合成一新的统一体;connect“连接,连结”指两事物在某一点上相接触,但彼此又保持独立,它们可以直接连接,也可通过连接手段连接;link“连接”指用链环连接或用接合物、粘合剂或其他手段连接,连接得紧,不易分开,但连接各部分仍保持原状,但意义比connect强;attach“附着,加(缚)上”将一小的东西固定在另一大物上,但各自保持独立,可拆卸。


354. joy /dʒɒɪ/ v. & n. 欢乐,高兴;乐事/趣

【拓展】

be filled with joy充满喜悦


be a great joy to sb.对某人是一大乐事


to one’s joy 令人高兴的是


joyful/joyous 欢乐的,令人高兴的


【例句】He experienced a joy in helping others in trouble.他领受到了那种帮助困难人之后的快乐。【串记】To his great joy, she accepted his invitation. For us, it is also a joyful thing. 令他高兴的是她接受了他的邀请。对我们来说,也是个令人高兴的事。


355. judge /dʒʌdʒ / n. 裁判;审判员;法官;vt. 判断,断定;审判,判决

【拓展】


judge by(from)根据……作出判断


judge of对……评价


judg(e)ment n. 意见;判断力


【例句】A man should be judged by his deeds,not his words.判断一个人应该根据他的行动,而不是根据他的言语。


【串记】Judging from what the hostess said, she showed a lack of judgment. 从她主持人的话里可以判断出她缺乏判断力。


356. just /dʒʌst/ ad. 刚才;恰好;不过,仅;请,尽管(用于祈使句,加强语气);a. 公正的;正直/义的(反unjust)


【拓展】


just about几乎,差不多


just now此刻,现在,刚才


just then正在那时候


just as正像;正当……的时候


just as……,so……正像……一样,……也……


just the same完全一样


only just刚好;好容易才,勉强地,几乎不


justice n. 司法;正义 →injustice 非正义


【例句】①I am just teasing you; you need not be nervous.我仅仅是在跟你闹着玩, 你不要紧张。


②Our aim is a just and lasting peace.我们的目标是维持一个公平而持久和平的世界。


【串记】 The just judge sentenced a person to death just now. 刚才公正的法官判了一个人死刑。


357. keep /kiːp/ (kept,kept) v. 保持;保存;继续不断;vt. 培育,饲养;记(录)


【拓展】

keep away使离开,站开


keep back抑制,阻止,不接近;保留;隐瞒


keep down镇压,抑制,压低;压缩,控制


keep off不接近,避开


keep out使在外,不让入内,未卷入,未参与


keep out of躲开,置身……之外


keep to坚持,固守,遵守


keep up支持,继续;维持,坚持下去;熬夜不睡


keep up with跟上


keep (on) doing sth. 持续/反复做某事


keep sb./sth. from doing sth. 阻止某人/某物做某事


keep sb./sth.doing sth.让某人/某物一直做某事


keeper n. 监护人;饲养员;看守人;管理人


【例句】①As you can see, the number of cars on our roads keeps rising these days.正如您可以看到的,这些天路上的汽车数量不断增加。

②Walking alone in the dark, the boy whistled(吹口哨)to keep up his courage.独自在黑暗中行走,男孩吹起口哨来保持他的勇气。

③Jack is late again.It is typical of him to keep others waiting.杰克又迟到了,他让别人等是常有的事情。

【串记】 I want to stop her from keeping out of the affair. As a keeper, she should keep up with the latest development of zoology. 我想阻止她置身事外。身为饲养员,她应该跟上动物学的最新发展。


358. kind /kaɪnd/ n. 种;类(同sort/type);a. 善良的;友好的

【拓展】

all kinds of 各种各样的


kind of 有点儿,有几分(同sort of)


nothing of the kind绝无其事;决不是那样,完全不是


of a kind同种的;低劣的;徒有其名的


be so kind as to/be kind enough to 请您费心


kindly ad. 亲切地;温和地;仁慈地


kindness n. 仁慈;好意;友好的行为

【例句】The flowers attract several different kinds of insects. 这些花吸引几种不同的昆虫。

【串记】All kinds of food appeared on the table. They are so kind that we have been treated with such kindness by them. 桌子上出现了各种各样的食物。他们是如此的善良,以至于他们都对我们很好。

【辨析】kind,sort,type,class

这些名词均有“种、类、类型”之意。kind指性质相同,而且特征很相似,足以归为一类的人或东西。sort普通用词,文体较kind随便,指对人或对事物进行的大概分类,有时含贬义。type指客观界限比较清楚,有相同本质特点的同类事物,或指大致相似的同类事物。class正式用词,指门类、种类或优劣等级;用于指动植物的分类时,表示“纲”。


359. knock /nɒk/ n. & v. 敲,打,击;敲击/打声;相/碰撞

【拓展】

knock at/on 敲(门、窗等);敲;打;敲击


knock down击落,拆除,迫使某人降价


knock into 撞上;与…相撞


knock off敲掉,中止(停止),匆匆赶完


knock out击倒,击昏,打败


knock over 打翻;撞倒

【例句】The courier was in such a hurry that he knocked into a waiter at the gate. 信使如此匆忙,以至于在门口撞到了一个侍者。。

【串记】He knocked at the door but there was no one there, so he knock it down. Then, he dashed into the room and knocked over the cup on the table. 他敲了门但没有人,于是他就把门拆卸了。他冲进屋里撞上了桌子,把桌上的茶杯打翻了。


360. know /nəʊ/ (knew,known) v. 知道,了解;认识;懂得

【拓展】


know about了解,知道


know A from B区分A和B


know of知道(有)……,听说过


know one's job懂行,在行


be known to all众所周知


know-it-all万事通


be known as 被称为;被认为是;作为…著称


be known for 因…而众所周知


be known to sb. 为某人所知


knowing a. 会意的


knowledge n.知识,学问


come to sb's knowledge被某人知道


to sb's knowledge据某人所知


knowledgeable a. 知识渊博的,有知识的


形近词:acknowledge v. 承认;答谢

【例句】①I know your brother by sight,but have never spoken to him.我和你兄弟面熟,但从来没有跟他谈过话。

②They are twins and it’s difficult to know one from the other.他们是双胞胎,很难辨认出谁是谁。

【串记】He is known for his cleverness. He has a lot of knowledge and is known as a knowledgeable person. 他是因为太聪明而被人熟知的,他有很多知识,被称作知识渊博的人。

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