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中考英语重点语法精选

时间:2023年12月06日 阅读量 : 188

1.建议

advice 建议,忠告(不可数); 

suggestion建议(可数)

________ useful advice you gave me!  (What)

 ________ valuable suggestion you have offered me! (What a)


2. room / space / place:

room“房间”(可数);“空间”(不可数)

Could you make some room for me? 

你能为我让一下空间吗?

space“太空; 空间” (不可数)    in space在宇宙太空       

 Is there any space for me in the car? 

车里有给我留的空间吗?(此处和room的含义相当)

 place“地方”(可数),指某一具体地点。

 I want to live in a place which is warm in winter. 

我想住在冬季温暖的一个地方。

 It is a wonderful place to go (to).


3. news/ information/ message

news新闻,消息(不可数); 

information信息(不可数);

message音信,口信(可数):

Can I take a message for you?

May I leave a message?


4. job/ work

 job, 可数:

I have a job as a teacher.     

 work, 不可数:

I cannot find work in this town.  


5. 声音voice/ noise/ sound 

voice指人的声音或嗓音; 

noise指难听刺耳的噪音,吵闹声; 

sound指声音的总称。


6. 数量 number / amount 

number 指可数名词的数量; 

amount 指不可数名词的数量


7.the/ a  number of

the number of “…的数量”; 

a number of: “许多的”, 都跟可数名词复数。

前者作主语,谓语用单数;后者作主语,谓语用复数。

The number of the trees______ two thousand.   (用单数谓语is. 另注意trees前有限定词)

 A number of trees ________ been cut down.   (用复数谓语have. 另注意trees前无限定词)


8. other; else

other 修饰名词,放于名词前。

else修饰疑问词和不定代词、不定副词,放在后面。

What else can you see in the picture?   

Do you have anything else to say?   

Where else can you see it?

Jim is taller than any _____ boy in his class. (other)


9. well/ good

well:1)adj 指身体健康状况好:

You look well today.

2) adv 修饰动词或形容词: sell well畅销,do well in ; be well worth doing 很值得做

 good:adj.修饰人或物 be good at; smell good

 The clothes look _______ and they sell _______ on the market. (good; well)


10. already/ yet

already用于肯定句; yet用于否定句和疑问句


11. also; too; as well; either

“也”:either, 用于否定句的末尾。

also, 通常挨着动词,少用于句尾。

too, 通常在句尾,前常有逗号。

as well, 只用于句尾, 前无逗号。  

注意:后三个词都不用于否定句。


12. before; ago

ago“…时间前”结构:时间段+ago, 用于一般过去时。

The Greens moved to Shanghai four weeks ago.   I saw it ten minutes ago.     

 (若有since+时间段+ago,常用现在完成时:Mr. Li has worked here since 5 years ago.)

  before 单独放在句尾,常用现在完成时:“以前” I have been to London before.  

 (若是时间段+before,常用过去完成时,“…前”:I had seen the film two weeks before. )  


13. almost; nearly; hardly

almost 几乎,差不多,后接肯定或否定词;nearly几乎,差不多,后接肯定意义的词。

hardly几乎不,表否定。 


14. too much, too many与much too:

 much too“过于”,加形容词或副词原级。

much too hot / slowly等。

too much“太多的”,加不可数名词。

too much work / rain等。

too many“太多的”,加可数复数。

too many books / people等。


15. a bit / a little区别:

都可作副词,后直接加形容词或副词。

 I’m a bit / a little hungry.   She feels a bit / a little tired.

 也都可作代词(或形容词),后接不可数名词,但有所不同:

She ate a little bread and went out.   (a little 直接加不可数名词)  

She ate a bit of bread. (a bit先加of,再跟名词)


16. everyday与every day: 

everyday是形容词,后接名词,“日常的”。

He is practicing everyday English.   

every day是副词,作时间状语,“每天”。

We speak English every day.


17.wish;hope

① wish既可接to do sth.  也可接sb + to do sth.  也可接that从句.

I wish to spend my summer holiday in Qingdao.    I wish you to join my party this Sunday.

I wish (that) I could be a scientist. (注:接that从句时,从句用虚拟语气。)

wish还用来接祝愿语:wish sb a great success; wish you a happy journey; wish you good luck等。

② hope接to do sth. 或that从句. 但不接sb to do sth.

I hope to receive a letter from you some day.    I hope you will get well soon.


18. spend; take; cost; pay

①It + take + sb + some time + to do sth:    

 It took us half an hour to cut down the tree.

②物 + cost + sb + 钱: 

The bag cost me thirty yuan.

若cost后无sb, 则译作“价钱是”: 

The bag costs 30 Yuan.

③人+ pay + sb + 钱 + for sth:   I paid the seller 200 Yuan for the bike.

④人 + spend + 时间/ 钱 + on sth / (in) doing sth.

   The girl spent two hours (in) searching the Internet.

   The girl always spends much money on her clothes.

   spend 有时可指“度过”:spend holiday / weekends / winter



19. put on; wear; dress;in

①put on,“穿上”后接物。表行为,是短暂动词。

You should put on your coat when you leave.

②wear,“穿,穿着”后接物,表状态,是延续性动词。

He always wears the yellow sweater in winter.    

③dress, “给…穿衣”后接人。

Lucy is dressing her little brother now.

be dressed in后常接具有某种特征的衣物。也可直接加表示颜色的词。

The lady is dressed in a white skirt.    

The students are all dressed in yellow.

get dressed “穿好衣服”,常不接宾语:  

He went out as soon as he got dressed.

dress up (as) ...“装扮(成)......”

He dressed up as a clown. 

他装扮成小丑。

④in, “穿着”后接具有某种特征的衣物,表状态,是介词,不可作谓语,可作状语。

也可以直接加表示颜色的词。  

The woman in a white skirt is my teacher.   

I want to talk to the boy in black. 

(我想找那个穿着黑衣服的男孩谈谈。)


20. reach; arrive; get 到达:

①get to + 地点 get to Shanghai / London / China

 接地点副词时,不带to.  get there / home / here.

②arrive in+大地点(如Beijing / Zhengzhou),arrive at+小地点(如school / hospital)

arrive只作不及物动词,所以也可单独用:

Please ring me up when you arrive.

③reach只作及物动词,后直接加地点:reach Beijing / England

 但常不说reach home / there / here.


21. talk, tell, say, speak: 

①talk只作不及物动词。

Don’t talk in class.   

Shall we talk about our English study?

He is talking with his teacher.  

 May I talk to you?

(注意talk接人和接物时介词搭配不同:talk with / to sb ;     talk about sth)

②tell只作及物动词,“告诉;讲”。常接双宾结构(tell sb sth.),常用短语有:tell a lie; tell the truth; tell the difference between ---; tell sb a story; tell a joke

③say必须接有内容,或逻辑上有内容作宾语。  (所接内容见以下划线部分)

Please say it in English.   

How do you say that in English?   

Please show me what to say..

Do you have anything to say?   

I must say sorry to you.

④speak ●“说话”不及物动词。

●接人时先加介词to.    May I speak to Mr. Smith?   

●也可译为“说”,作及物动词,后接语言。Do you speak English / Chinese?



22. win与beat区别:

都有“赢”的意思。win后加物:

而beat后加的是人,也可译为“打败”:

I’m afraid they will beat us.



23. leave; forget

①leave可指“离开” 

leave Zhengzhou for Wuhan

离开郑州到武汉

② leave留下;忘记  

I left my book at home.

 leave后接地点,而forget后无地点。如:

Sorry, I forgot the money.


24. take, bring, fetch与carry: 

都译为“拿”。

◆take“拿走”,从说话人处带到另一处。Could you take the rubbish out when you leave?

◆bring“带来”,从另一处带到说话人处。Don’t forget to bring your homework here tomorrow.

◆get“去拿来”,先到另一地拿东西,然后再返回到说话人处。

 如:When you go back to the classroom, please get me my pen.

◆carry“拿、搬、扛”,没有特定方向。Tim is carrying a box.


25. receive; accept

receive指收到,但不一定接受;accept 指接受,收下

I ________ a gift from one of my friends, but I don’t want to _________ it. (receive; accept)


26. put 短语

put on (穿上) 

 put off (推迟)  

put away (把…整理好) 

put up (举起,搭起,挂起,张贴) 

put down (放下) 

put out(扑灭);


27. turn短语

turn on  打开  

turn off   关闭 

turn up   调大  

turn down  关小 

turn out   结果是

turn to sb  向某人求助


28. give  短语

give away  赠送 

give out  发放

give up  放弃

give back  归还

give in  屈服,让步


29. take 短语

take off  脱下,起飞

take away  拿走

take out  拿出 

take in  吸收 

take up   从事


30.look 短语

look up  查找 

look over  仔细查看

look after  照看

look out  当心

look through   浏览


31. used 短语

used to do sth过去常常做某事

be used to doing sth习惯于做某事

be used to do sth =be used for doing sth被用来做某事


32.keep, make, get, have用法:

①keep + sb / sth doing sth “让…一直做…” 

I’m sorry for keeping you waiting so long.   

(区别:keep + doing sth “坚持做某事,一直做某事”)


②make + sb / sth do sth让…做某事(接动原) 

I’ll try to make you understand what I mean.     

make若用于被动语态,原有后接动词原形要改为带to不定式(本文源自锦鲤英语微信公众号):

I made him wait for long. 

→He was made to wait for long.

③get + sb / sth to do sth.让…做某事。

He got Peter to buy him a pen.

④have + 宾语+ 动词原形 / ing / 过去分词

Have him do it, please.

让他做它吧。(him 和 do 逻辑上形成主谓关系,do用原形。)

We had the machine working.

我们让机器一直工作着。(让某物一直在进行着某事。)

We had the machine repaired.

我们让人修理了那台机器(让机器被修理了,表被动。)

⑤也都可接形容词:keep safe / busy,   keep the door closed / open,

make us happy,  get the door closed,  have everything ready.   


33. in/ after+一段时间

in+一段时间,用于将来时,用how soon提问。

after+一段时间,用于过去时


34.through / past / across 区别: 

都可作介词,“穿过”,前常有位移动词(以下黑体部分)。

He climbed through the window and saw what he could take away. 

(从内部穿过)

He went past me without saying any words.  

(从旁边经过)

 He swam across the river.  

(从表面经过)【through,内部; past,旁边; across,表面】


 位移动词 + past相当于动词pass; 位移动词 + across相当于动词cross.


35. since/ for +时间

since+过去某时间(点)

for+一段时间(段),

常用于完成时,强调动作的延续性,用how long提问。


36. in front of/ in the front of

in front of在物体外部的前面; in the front of在物体内部的前面


37. 乘交通工具之表达:

①by bike / car / sea (ship) / air (plane)  (前无冠词,且不用复数)

②on a horseback / his bike / the plane / a ship   (有冠词或限定词)

③in his / a car  (car前用in)  

④on foot   

⑤动词短语: ride a bike / a horse;  drive a car;  walk;  take a plane / taxi / bus;  fly等。


38.常见带介词to的短语:

 prefer…to…(与---相比较更喜欢); 

look forward to …(期待;渴望); 

pay attention to…(注意); 

be get used to …(习惯于);

devote…to…(致力于) 

put one’s effort into…把某人的精力投身到……

make great contribution to对……做出贡献(以上短语可接名词或代词,若接动词,需用ing形式)

 the key to…(…的钥匙) , 

the answer to--- (…的答案); 

reply to (….的答复); 

lead to …(引起…); 

the clue to(---的线索); 

the witness to(---的证人)


39.连词if/whether

if 如果(引导条件状语从句,主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时) / 是否(引导宾语从句,根据时间确定时态): 

Do you know if he will go to the post office? 

If he goes there, I will ask him to buy me some stamps. 

两个if, 前者“是否”;后者“如果”,观察其后时态的不同。

 whether “是否”引导宾语从句(相当于if),whether可接or (not), 也可接带to不定式。而if 则不可。

另外,if从句中用any,常不用some。


40.how long / how often / how soon / how far:

①how long 是对长度或时间段提问。

②how often是对频率提问,如:never, sometimes, often, usually, always, once a week, twice a day,  three times a year,  every day / every four years等。

若只有次数,则用how many times 提问:

 How many times do you watch TV a week?  -Twice. / only once.】

③how soon 是对“in + 时间段”提问:

④how far是对以下三种表达法的提问:

   —How far is it from your home to the school?  有以下三种回答:

▲—It’s five minutes’ walk / an hour’s ride / thirteen minutes’ bus ride.

▲—It’s about 20 kilometers away. (注意回答时不再用far,而用away)

▲—It’s 15 minutes by bus / on foot / by train / by bike.


41.主谓一致:

◇One / Neither of you is right.   (单数谓语)

◇Tom, with his friends, has gone.  (主语是Tom, 单数谓语)

◇This pair of shoes looks beautiful. would you like to try them on?  (主语是pair, 谓语用单数,但代词用复数)

◇Every boy and every girl has a chance to do it.  (此结构中用单数谓语)

◇We each have a car. (主语是we, 用复数)

◇Each of us has a car. (主语是 each, 单数谓语)

◇The old need to be looked after carefully.  

The young are energetic.

(the 加形容词表一类人或物,谓语用复数)

◇Mr. and Mrs. Green are from America. 

指格林夫妇  (复数谓语) 本文源自锦鲤英语微信公众号

◇The teacher and writer is an able man.  

指教师兼作家, 一个人,单数谓语。 

◇Both you and I are excited about the news.   (both…..and …做主语,谓语用复数)

◇Not only you but also I am a student. 

(not only--, but also---; neither---nor---; either---or---; there be有就近原则)

◇Ten years has passed since he came here. 

(时间、金钱以及表度量衡的词做主语表单数)


42. there be用法:

 ●常有以下结构: there may be(可能有)/ must be(一定有)  / used to be(曾经有)

●there be在不同时态中的形式:There is/are/was/were/will be/is(are) going to be/have(has)been。

 ●there be 后接的是表示泛指的名词,单数名词前用不定冠词。There is a dog under the desk.

●There is only a student taking notes now. (划线部分逻辑上是主谓关系,动词加ing)


43. 常见后接动词原形的词或短语:

使役动词(let make have)

情态动词(can may must...)

助动词(do does did)

why not 

had better 

would rather 

would you please 

【注意否定形式:had better / would rather /would you please直接加not + 动原】


44.常见后接动词ing的词或短语:

finish 

enjoy 

practice 

imagine

suggest

spend

consider

miss(错过)

keep/ mind  

feel like 

prefer…to…

can’t help(禁不住)  

be busy 

be worth(值得) 

give up 

have fun 

have a good time

 have trouble (in) 

have problems (in)

have difficulty (in)/+doing


45. have gone to/have been to/have been in:

①have gone to+地点“已去了…(还未回来)” 

-I can’t find those children, where are they?

 -They have gone to the farm. (去了农场,不在这儿)

②have been to+地点“去过…(原来去过,现在已回) ”句尾常接次数或地点。

 She has been to Qingdao three times.      

 I have never been there before.  

Where have you been? 你去哪儿了?(Where后省略to)

③have been in + 地点,“已在…(多久了) ”句尾常接for + 时间段,或since + 过去时间点。

 Peter has been in China for a long time.


46. be + 形 + of sb 与 for sb的区别:

①It’s kind of you to help me. 

你帮助我真好。

解释:kind, nice, good, clever, foolish,lazy等词表示的是人的特点或性格。此句相当于在说You are kind to help me. 形容词在描述人而不是事,此情况下介词用的是of.  

②It’s easy for you to do the work. 

对你来说做这事是容易的。

解释:easy,difficult, necessary, important, dangerous, interesting等词不是说人,而是说事,相当于To do the work is easy。此情况下介词用的是for. 又如:It’s dangerous for us to climb the mountain.是说“爬山”这件事是危险的。故用for.


47. 条件与祈使: 

有时条件句可以与祈使句相互转换。注意以下句子结构有何不同。

①If you work hard, you will achieve your dream. 含条件句,相当于:  

Work hard, and you will achieve your dream.  含祈使句,用and连接后一句子。

②If you don’t listen carefully, you won’t understand it. 相当于:

 Listen to me carefully, or you won’t understand it.用or (否则)连接后一句子。

 You won’t understand it unless you listen to me carefully.


48.动词seem 的常用句型:

①It seems that +从句

It seems that he feels very sad.

②seems + adj……看起来好像…

He seems very sad.

③sb. seem to do sth.  

 He seems to feel very sad.


49.要某人做某事的常用句型:

ask sb. to do 叫…做某事;  

ask sb. not to do sth.叫…不要做某事

tell sb. to do 告诉…做某事;  

tell sb. not to do sth. 告诉…不要做某事如:

The teacher asked me to clean the classroom.

I was asked to clean the classroom by the teacher.

 “Don’t clean the classroom.” The teacher said.(改为间接引语)

The teacher told me not to clean the classroom.


50.表达“更喜欢……”的常用句型:

①prefer sth. 更喜欢某事 

I prefer English. 我更喜欢英语。

②prefer A to B. 同…相比更喜欢A . 

I prefer dogs to cats.

③prefer doing A to doing B. 宁愿做A而不愿干B。

④like A better than B. 同B相比更喜欢A

⑤prefer to do A rather than do B. 同B相比更喜欢A.

⑥would rather do A than do B. 同B相比更喜欢A. 


51.“该到某人做某事的时间了”句型:

①It’s time(for sb) to do sth

②It’s time for + n / doing .

③It’s one’s turn to do sth.


52.“自从……已多久”的句型

①It’s +时间段+ since+过去时态的从句.

②It has been + 时间段+ since+过去时态的从句.

③时间段 + has passed since+过去时态的从句.

It’s three months since he left his hometown .

 = He left his hometown three months ago .

= Three months has passed since he left his hometown .

53.“the+比较级……,the+比较级……”“越……,越……”句型

The more you eat , the fatter you are . 

你吃得越多,就越胖。


54.“比较级+ and +比较级”“越来越”的句型; more and more +多音节形容词

He becomes stronger and stronger .

他越来越健壮。 

Our scholl is getting more and more beautiful.


55. 比较级前+the特例

He is the taller of the two. 

(他是两个当中较高的那个,the表特指)


56."你最好做....."句型

had better + do sth"你最好...."   

had better not + do sth “你最好不..."


57.“问路”的句型

①the way to the……?

②CanCould you tell me     how I can get to the ……?

③how to get to the ……?

④which is the way to the ……?

⑤where the --- is?


58. “……出毛病了,怎么了”的句型, 句中的what 为主语。

①What’s wrong with sbsth ?

②What’s the matter with sbsth ?

③What’s the trouble with sthsb ?

④There is something wrong with sbsth.

= Something is wrong with sb/sth.

= sth is broken.= sth doesn’t work.


59.“对事物看法如何”的句型

①What do you think of sbsth ?  

②How do you like sbsth ?

= How do you find sb sth? 


60.“问天气如何”的句型

①What’s the weather like today?   

②How is the weather ?


61.对某人的评价

What’s sb like? 

---He/ She is friendly and helpful.(人品或外貌)

What does sb look like? 

---He/She is tall and slim.(外表长相)


62. 询问职业:

What is sb?  ---He/She is a teacher.

    询问身体:

How is sb?  ---He/She is well.


63.“find / think + it(形式宾语)+ adj  to do sth.”简单句句型

I find it difficult for me to learn English well .

(it为形式宾语,真正的宾语是不定式to learn English well , difficult是形容词作宾补)= I find it is difficult for me to learn English well .(宾语从句形式—复合句)


64.It is +过去分词 +that...

It is said that+ 从句,“据说……”,相当于They say---

It is believed that 从句, “据信……

It is reported that the book will come out soon. 据报道---


65.否定前移

 think/ believe/expect等后接从句时,从句中的否定要前移到主句中来。

I don’t think you are right, are you? 

(主句主语是第一人称,反意疑问句根据从句来变。)

I don’t believe he will come today, will he?.


66. find和think用法: 

find / think + 宾语 + 宾语补足语。(代替宾从)

 宾补有以下情况:

①名词短语 John found him a clever boy.

②形容词短语 Mrs. Smith thinks her kind.

③有时宾补后可接带to不定式  I found it hard to fool the girl.

④.find后也有v-ing形式作宾语补足语 I found him reading a book just now.


67.计量表达法:

数量+单位+形容词。  

The street is two kilometers long.

That boy can jump four meters away.(此处不用far)  The fish is five kilos heavy.

The street is forty meters wide.     

This baby is only six months old.

 若计量表达的后面跟有名词,则要用连字符,单位不用复数。

They dug an eight-meter-deep hole. 

I bought a 10-kilo-heavy fish.

It’s a piece of 2-meter-thick ice.

They built a 50-meter-wide street.

It’s a two-month holiday.  

She is a three-child mother.  

(最后两句计量中省略了形容词)


68. 定语从句中关系词的选择:

 当先行词指人时,常用who 或that; 当先行词是物时,常用which或that。

 但当先行词前有最高级、序数词、the only等词修饰时只用that。


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